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День Колумба - Columbus Day

День Св.Валентина - День Сурка - Троица - День Колумба - День Благодарения - День Ветеранов - День Гая Фокса - Хеллоуин


Holidays - Columbus Day. Праздники - День Колумба

Маловероятно, что современный образованный человек ничего не знает о Христофоре Колумбе или, по крайней мере, о том, что он открыл Америку. Хотя последний факт требует уточнения, а именно, он открыл для европейцев новые земли: Багамские острова, Кубу, Венесуэлу и Гандурас. Задолго до Колумба на территории нынешних США и Канады побывали норвежец Леиф Эриксон, исландец Торфин Карсефни, не исключено, что бывали и другие, неизвестные мореплаватели. Кроме того, говорить об "открытии" Северной и Южной Америки не приходится, поскольку задолго до Колумба здесь существовали цивилизации майя, ацтеков, инков. Тем не менее, 11 октября именно в США отмечается День Колумба. 

A U.S. national holiday since 1937, Columbus Day commemorates the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World on October 12, 1492. The Italian-born explorer had set sail two months earlier, backed by the Spanish monarchs King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. He intended to chart a western sea route to China, India and the fabled gold and spice islands of Asia; instead, he landed in the Bahamas, becoming the first European to explore the Americas since the Vikings set up colonies in Greenland and Newfoundland during the 10th century.
Later that month, Columbus sighted Cuba and believed it was mainland China; in December the expedition found Hispaniola, which he thought might be
Japan. There, he established Spain's first colony in the Americas with 39 of his men. In March 1493, the explorer returned to Spain in triumph, bearing gold, spices and "Indian" captives. He crossed the Atlantic several more times before his death in 1506; by his third journey, he realized that he hadn't reached Asia but instead had stumbled upon a continent previously unknown to Europeans.

The first Columbus Day celebration took place in 1792, when New York's Columbian Order–better known as Tammany Hall–held an event to commemorate the historic landing's 300th anniversary. Taking pride in Columbus' birthplace and faith, Italian and Catholic communities in various parts of the country began organizing annual religious ceremonies and parades in his honor. In 1892, President Benjamin Harrison issued a proclamation encouraging Americans to mark the 400th anniversary of Columbus' voyage with patriotic festivities, writing, "On that day let the people, so far as possible, cease from toil and devote themselves to such exercises as may best express honor to the discoverer and their appreciation of the great achievements of the four completed centuries of American life."
In 1937, President
 Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Columbus Day a national holiday, largely as a result of intense lobbying by the Knights of Columbus, an influential Catholic fraternal benefits organization. Originally observed every October 12, it was fixed to the second Monday in October in 1971.

In many parts of the United States, Columbus Day has evolved into a celebration of Italian-American heritage. Local groups host parades and street fairs featuring colorful costumes, music and Italian food. In cities and towns that use the day to honor indigenous peoples, activities include pow-wows, traditional dance and lessons about Native American culture.


commemorate - праздновать, отмечать

explorer  - исследователь

fabled - сказочный, известный

captive - пленник

stumble upon - наткнуться на

cease from - оторваться от

toil - тяжкий труд

evolve into - превратиться в

heritage - наследие

indigenous peoples - аборигены





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